Auction photograph of a late nineteenth-century rug made by a Navajo Indian in the American Southwest. The rug sold for $18.900 at a 2008 auction conducted by Skinner, Inc., Boston, Massachusetts. Incorporation of symbols of progress into folk materials occurs commonly in many cultures. To enhance all manner of objects which they have made or embellished, Native Americans have used, for example, American flags, Christian crosses, European-related designs, horses, and other objects and animals to which they introduced through trade and the release of European animals into the wilderness. None of these images had been indigenous to the tribes. The train, and especially the locomotive, was a relatively late example of this type of adaptation. Its impressive power, its negative (interference with wildlife migrations, for example) and positive (convenience of travel; ease of importation of material goods and food) effects, and its employment of some Native Americans as laborers led to creations like this rug. Fred Harvey, who operated restaurants, hotels, and gift shops featuring Southwestern Indian crafts, encouraged Native Americans to create such materials along the Santa Fe routes. Afghani rugs in the first decade of the twenty-first century have incorporated war scenes and images of war materiel, a similar cultural manifestation as demonstrated in this rug.